Human life started in Viet Nam a very long time ago.
Human life started in Viet Nam a very long time ago. In fact, archaeologists have found vestiges of Homo Erectus, in the caves of Lang Son, Nghe An and Yen Bai provinces, as well as the discovery of some artifacts at Do Mountain (Thanh Hoa Province), Than Sa (Thai Nguyen Province), Son Vi (Phu Tho Province) between 10,000 to 30,000 years ago. In the Pre Palaeolithic Age, the population was rather large and widespread. People living at this time, used trimmed pebbles as tools.
Known as the Hoa Binh, Bac Son Culture (between 6,000 to 10,000 years ago). People used trimmed stone tools and axes, made pottery goods, and cultivated fields.
Formation of Viet Nam
Metal Age (about 4,000 years ago) From Bronze Age to Iron Age, Viet Nam existed three major cultural centers: Phung Nguyen Dong Son (the North), Long Thanh Sa Huynh (the Centre) and Cau Sat, Doc Chua Dong Nai (the South). These three major cultural centers had close and long mutual relationship, contributed to specific traditional culture of Viet Nam. It's unity in abundance.
Van Lang and Au Lac Nations
It was only during the Dong Son period that a state first emerged. Evidence of the unified culture, prevailing in the region between the Sino Vietnamese border in the North and the bank of the Gianh River in the South, made it clear that a nation of the ancient Viet people had existed. At that time, the Hung Kings ruled the Van Lang Nation.
Later, in third century BC, An Duong Vuong founded the Au Lac Nation. Records of this nation can be found in the annals written by Chinese historian Xi Ma Tin. Remains of the Co Loa Citadel, which was built during the An Duong Vuong period, can still be seen today.
During the Iron Age, the Pre Sa Huynh culture evolved in South-Central Viet Nam, between Thua Thien and the Dong Nai River Delta. During this time, people we're buried in tombs along with many iron tools and jewellery made of agate and jasper. The Sa Huynh culture was founded by the ancestors of the Cham.
Chinese Domination Period
In 207 BC, Au Lac was conquered by Zhao Juo, the King of Nan Yue, who was then occupied by the Han Empire. Dominated by Han in 111 BC, Au Lac was divided into districts. Viet Nam remained under Chinese cultural hegemony for the next eleven centuries.
During this period, a series of insurrections we're organized to gain independence. The start was the Trung Sisters' insurrection (40 AD 43 AD), Ba Trieu (248). In 542, Ly Bi raised an army to rebel against another one of those pesky Chinese dynasties, the Luong rulers. He was successful and gained independence. He came to the throne in 544. The country was renamed Van Xuan, but only for a short time. During the domination of the Chinese empire, a series of insurrections we're organized such as: the Mai Thuc Loan (722), Phung Hung (766 791) had gained independence for 7 years, Khuc Dynasty (905 923), Duong Dinh Nghe (931 938). Ngo Quyen insurrections against Nam Han, in 938, in the Bach Dang River marked the end of more than 1,000 years of Chinese domination and the independence of the country resumed.
Stage of Independence
A new page in Vietnamese history was turned at the beginning of the 10th century when the Ngo Dynasty (939 965), Dinh Dynasty (968 980), and Pre Le (980 1009) Dynasty strove to consolidate, maintain, and protect a unified and independent nation. The victory of the resistance led by Le Hoan in 981 against the Sung invasion (Chinese) was a compelling proof of these objectives.
Ly and Tran Dynasties
From the 111h century to the 14th centuries, during the Ly (1009 1225) and Tran (1226 1400) dynasties, Viet Nam became a powerful nation. The government had a strong army including regional and court forces.
Agriculture developed. Building dikes and ploughing virgin soils we're focused on. Villages specializing in producing either pottery, bronze, or iron objects formed. Merchant ships from China and other south-eastern Asian countries came to trade at the Hoi Thong and Van Don ports.
During the Ly and Tran dynasties, Buddhism prevailed and had a great impact on literature and arts. Confucianism also started to develop around this time. Van Mieu (Temple of Literature) was built in Ha Noi to worship Confucius at the end of the 11th century.
Confucianism examinations we're held regularly during the Tran Dynasty. There we're more and more bureaucratic class come from Confucianism. The Nom script was used widely in literary works, and the first documents on the country's history we're compiled. The independence of the country was maintained thanks to the successful resistance against the Sung (1075 1077), led by Ly Thuong Kiet, and against the repeated assaults of the Mongols, led by the Tran kings and Tran Hung Dao in 1258, 1285, and 1288.
The Ho Dynasty (1400 1407) carried out reforms to overcome the crisis, which began late in the Tran Dynasty. Ho Quy Ly imposed policies to reduce feudal tenure and servants and issued paper notes instead of coins. However, his policies did not bring about many improvements. The people did not support him. King Ho could not organize resistance against the Ming Invasion from China and the Ming Empire conquered the country. Later, Tran Dynasty was in power for 7 years but they also could not defeat Ming invaders to restore independent.
Le Loi led a movement to secure the independence of the country. The resistance in Lam Son, in the Thanh Hoa Province, lasted 10 years. Supported and assisted by the people and excellent leaders, among them was Nguyen Trai, a national hero and activist, the movement led by Le Loi was triumphant. The "Binh Ngo Dai Cao" (Great proclamation) written by Nguyen Trai became an Independence Manifesto.
In the 15th century, agriculture, industry, and trade developed as society became stable. Confucianism became the orthodox ideology. Looking for talents through examinations was regular and a law known as the Hong Duc Law was issued, it clearly described the perspective of Viet Nam's political, social, and economical status at that time.
However, the Le Dynasty (1428 1788) started deteriorating and society reached chaos in the 16tn century. In 1527, Mac Dang Dung overthrew the Le King and established the Mac Dynasty. The Trinh clan then mobilized a resistance against the Mac Dynasty. In 1592 Trinh clan conquered Thang Long, and Le King came back to the throne by the help of Trinh Lords but the power belonged to the Trinh Lords. Meanwhile, in the South, the Nguyen Lords extended their land to the Mekong Delta and carried out a resistance against the Trinh clan. The Trinh Nguyen War sketched from 1627 to 1772.
During this time, there we're many changes in politics as well as in society and economic in Viet Nam. At the end of the 16th century, Viet Nam developed trade relations with Western countries such as Portugal, Spain, Holland, and Britain, France. At this period, Catholicism started propagating into Viet Nam.
The commodity economy prospered so much that many cities developed. Among them: Thang Long, Pho Hien in Dang Ngoai (in the North) and Hoi An, Thanh Ha, Nuoc Man in Dang Trong (in the Central and the South).
Tay Son Dynasty
The Nguyen brothers, Nguyen Nhac, Nguyen Hue, and Nguyen Lu led the Tay Son insurrection in 1771 and overthrew the Nguyen Dynasty. Thai forces (Thailand) we're defeated by the Tay Son army in Rach Gam Xoai Mut front (on My Tho River) in 1785. Then, the Tay Son army marched to Dang Ngoai (the North) and overthrew the Trinh Dynasty.
Le Chieu Thong, the last king of the Le Dynasty, fled to China and asked for the assistance of the Qin Dynasty. Nguyen Hue took the throne in Phu Xuan, now called Hue, in 1788. He led the army to the North to defeat the Qin troop of 290,000 men in Thang Long during the first lunar month of 1789.
Under the Tay Son Dynasty, Quang Trung Nguyen Hue implemented progressive policies on land and education but he passed away in 1792. At that time, Nguyen Anh, who was supported by the French, returned to the Mekong River Delta to fight the Tay Son army. Tay Son was defeated in 1802, and Nguyen Anh conquered Phu Xuan and established Nguyen Dynasty.
In 1802, Nguyen Anh proclaimed himself as Emperor Gia Long and founded the Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1945). Gia Long and Minh Mang, the first and second kings of the Nguyen Dynasty, unified the country and set up a healthy state. In regards to the internal policy, the Nguyen Kings cleared land for cultivation, encouraging irrigation. As for the external policy, Minh Mang and Thieu Tri kings (third king of Nguyen Dynasty) sent merchant ships to trade with France, England, Indonesia, and India.
The Nguyen Kings ordered those books on national history and geography be written and printed. These we're important books that had a great impact on the national culture. Confucianism was becoming the basis of the Nguyen Dynasty's conservative ideology. The Nguyen Dynasty imposed a closed-door policy and dispelled diplomatic missions who wanted to set up relations with Viet Nam.
In the middle of the 19th century, the occidental countries, among which France, we're competing to conquest new markets in Asia and extend their colonies. As soon as 1843, France sent boats to Da Nang to thread the Nguyen Dynasty.
Following a succession of strives, the French government sanctioned the decision to conquer Viet Nam in 1857. However, due to resistance by Vietnamese patriots, it took the French 30 years to establish their domination in all Vietnam.
In 1887, Indochina Alliance was established. It consisted of Viet Nam (Bac Ky North Vietnam, Trung Ky Central Vietnam, Nam Ky South Vietnam regions), Cambodia and Laos. In the beginning of the 20th century, French social and economic policies we're boosted in Viet Nam. The French concentrated investments in the mining industry as well as several other industries. A number of large plantations appeared in addition to rice, and economical crops, such as tea, coffee, and rubber. Agricultural and handicraft products we're being considered as commodities. These changes in the Vietnamese economy resulted in a division between the bourgeoisie and working class.
Movement of Independence
Vietnamese patriots with different ideologies consecutively struggled to liberate the country. One movement was the Dong Du, which was led by Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chu Trinh and the Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc group followed a policy of raising intellectual standards. Nguyen Thai Hoc and his fellows we're sentenced to death. Nguyen Ai Quoc, better known as Ho Chi Minh, founded Viet Nam's Communist Party (or the Indochina Communist Party) in 1930. From that point, Communists we're the primary leaders of the national liberation movement.
After World War II and Japan's surrender, the Vietnamese triumphed in the August 1945 Revolution. President Ho Chi Minh read the Independence Manifesto declaring the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam at Ba Dinh Square on 2 September 1945.
Following the August 1945 Revolution, the Vietnamese population nevertheless endured several more foreign invasions.
Resistance against the French
In 1946, French colonialists invaded Indochina again. Under the leadership of the Indochina Communist Party (the name of the Vietnamese Communist Party at that time) and President Ho Chi Minh, the Vietnamese carried out a resistance to protect their independence. The historical victory at Dien Bien Phu ended the second Vietnamese resistance war or second French war (1858 1945 the first Vietnam war of French, 1946 1954 second Vietnam war of French). The Geneva Accords concluded in 1954 recognized Viet Nam as a reunified and independent country.
American War or Vietnam war
After the French colonialists withdrew from the North, Viet Nam was temporarily divided into two pads at the 17th parallel. The North consisted of the Democratic Republic of Viet Nam where reconstruction had started.
Meanwhile, the South Vietnamese had to fight against the US Army and Sai Gon Government that was known as Vietnam war by the world. The Vietnamese population led a fierce war for nearly 20 years before gaining national independence. After the Paris Agreements we're signed in 1973, US Army troops withdrew from Viet Nam to end their Vietnam war.
Posted in Newspaper Post Date 06/20/2016